• Nicole Abbott 
    Reading Interventionist
    Pickett Elementary Phone: 943-5000 x. 6533
    Email: abbottn@georgetownisd.org

    Education & Teaching Background

    BA from Missouri Southern State University
    15 years in education 

    Intervention Information

    Reading intervention supplements our literacy curriculum and may be administered by a classroom teacher or interventionist.  Language Arts teachers may recommend students for intervention based on a battery of assessments and the students' performance in the subject area. Intervention is provided to students for the primary purpose of increasing reading levels by addressing one or more of the following areas: 

    Phonemic Awareness - students are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning

    • Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/, requires phonemic awareness. 
     Phonological Awareness - the basis for phonics (the understanding that sounds and print letters are connected).  A child with strong phonological awareness should be able to:

    • recognize and use rhyme ("cat" rhymes with "hat", if we change the "f" in "fog" to an "l", the new word is "log")  
    • break words into syllables (wa-ter)
    • blend phonemes into syllables and words ("cat"- /k/, /æ/, and /t/)
    • identify the beginning and ending sounds in a syllable (recognizing the "d" sound and the "g" sound  in the word "dog")
    • see smaller words within larger words (“cat” in “catalog”).

    Speed and Fluency - Helps increase students' reading speed, giving them tools to read faster while retaining larger chunks of information. Fluency also refers to the ability to read smoothly and efficiently.  Our four areas of focus are Accuracy, Rate, Expression, & Punctuation.  Rereading short stories is a great way to build fluency.  

    End of year goals are as follows:
    • 1st Grade = 67 words correct per minute (wcpm)
    • 2nd Grade = 106 wcpm
    • 3rd Grade = 127 wcpm
    • 4th Grade = 139 wcpm
    • 5th Grade =153 wcpm

    Comprehension - Understanding the text is imperative to reading success.  Strategies to improve a student’s overall grasp of the content:

    • Make Connections—Readers connect the topic or information to what they already know about themselves, about other texts, and about the world.· 
      • "This story reminds me of a vacation we took to my grandfather's farm."
    • Ask Questions—Readers ask themselves questions about the text, their reactions to it, and the author's purpose for writing it.·
      • "Does what I am reading make sense?" 
      • "What am I learning?"  
      • "Why did the main character do what he/she did?"  
      • "What is probably going to happen next?"  
      • "Did the author write this text to inform me, entertain me, or persuade me to agree with him/her?"  
    • Visualize—Readers make the printed word real and concrete by creating a “movie” of the text in their minds. 
      • "Joan could barely believe her eyes. All these gifts were for her! She had never seen so many packages, not even on all her birthdays combined!"  
        • Some children may picture a small child surrounded by stacks of gifts. Others may imagine an older girl in front of a table piled with presents. 
      • There is no single correct answer, and those three simple sentences offer enough information for the reader or listener to begin to form a mental picture.
    • Determine Text Importance—Readers:
    (a) distinguish between what's essential versus what's interesting  - Determining importance is a strategy that readers use to distinguish between what information in a text is most important versus what information is interesting but not necessary for understanding what they are reading.
    • Activity: make a list of items and have your child choose five of the most important items listed needed for a camping trip  - would you choose to take a flashlight or a radio?
    • Students need to become detectives and search for the most important points of the text. Remind your child that along the way, there will be distractors, or less important information, given to make the selection more interesting or clearer to the reader.
      • This information, however, is not essential to understanding the point of the text/story.  In other words, what information would you tell when sharing a story or information from a text and what would you leave out?
    (b) distinguish between fact and opinion
    • 'There!' your friend announced, jabbing her finger into her book. 'Now that's a fact!' You look over her shoulder to see what she's pointing at and snort. 'That's no fact,' you reply. 'It's just the author's opinion.' Your friend glares at you, 'No way! It's right there in print. See? Dogs do make better pets than cats!'  
      • A fact is a provable statement. For instance, it is a proven fact that the Civil War occurred from 1861-1865. You can look it up in any history book and find the same dates. 
      • An opinion, on the other hand, expresses a personal belief, idea, or feeling that is not provable. You might think, for example, that Robert E. Lee was the best general in the Civil War, and you might present some good reasons to defend your idea, but you can't prove it beyond a doubt. Someone else might say the same about Ulysses S. Grant and also offer convincing evidence in support.
    (c) determine cause-and-effect relationships  - To determine the cause of something, ask why it happened. To determine the effect of
    a cause, ask what happened.
    • "Because the alarm was not set, we were late for work."  Cause (why were we late?) = alarm was not set / Effect (what happened?) = we were late for work.  
    • "I had to get the mop since I spilled my juice."  Cause = I spilled my juice / Effect = I had to get the mop.  
    • "The baby was crying, so Dad picked him up."  Cause = the baby was crying / Effect = Dad picked him up.  
    • "A tornado blew the roof off of the house, as a result, the family had to find a new home."  Cause = a tornado blew the roof off of the house / Effect = the family had to find a new home.  
    • "Sarah studied hard for the test, therefore she made 100%."  Cause = Sarah studied hard for the test / Effect = She made 100%.
    • "When the ocean is polluted, corral reefs die."  Cause = the ocean is polluted / Effect = corral reefs die.  
    • "As the wind speed increases, the sail boat moves faster."  Cause = the wind speed increases / Effect = the sail boat moves faster.  
      • Words in bold = cause and effect signal words

    (d) compare and contrast ideas or information
     
    (e) discern themes, opinions, or perspectives
    (f) pinpoint problems and solutions - The story line introduces characters and a problem at the beginning –> the character(s) try to solve the problem in the middle, which rises to a climax –> and at the end, the problem is solved.
    • Dog Breath by Dav Pilkey is a pun-filled book about a family pet, Hally Tosis, who has incredibly bad breath. The Tosis family tries to help Hally get rid of the bad breath to no avail. But dog breath may actually be a good thing, especially when two thieves visit the Tosis family!
    (g) name steps in a process  - A procedure is a text that tells you how to do, make or use something. It will give you a step-by-step guide so that you can achieve a specific goal.  Usually, a procedure will help you to:
    • make something, such as a recipe for pancakes 
    • use something, such as a manual on how to use a DVD player 
    • do something, such as how to play soccer or get to the park
    (h) locate information that answers specific questions - Don't rely too much on prior knowledge. Although you may know about the subject, the information that is presented will be the source from which your answer should come.
    •  Directions: Read the passage below and answer the question.

      During the late 1500s, five related Iroquois Nations formed what is known as “The Iroquois League.” The Five Nations were the Cayuga, the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Onondaga, and the Seneca. They lived in the woods and hills of New York. The Iroquois called this union “The Great Peace.” They did not want wars among themselves. They wanted peace.

      The Iroquois joined together for their common good. They created a council made up of leaders from each of the five Nations. Iroquois women picked the leaders, and they picked them for life. They chose leaders for their patience, good will, generosity, and ability to act in the best interests of all.

      Because of their unity and peace-seeking, the Iroquois prospered for a long time. Their representative form of government later inspired the American colonists.

      According to the passage above, which statement best explains why (cause) the Iroquois League was formed among the five Iroquois Nations?

      1. The Iroquois hoped to inspire American colonists.
      2. The Iroquois joined together to keep peace and promote their common good.
      3. The Iroquois wanted a council of leaders who were patient, generous, and able to act in the best interests of all.
      4. The Iroquois wanted to take over the woods and hills of New York.
    • Answer A - Although the Iroquois League later inspired the American colonists, this is not the reason/cause the League was formed among the Iroquois Nations.  It is an effect of the formation of the League not a cause of the formation of the League.  
    • Answer B - Correct answer.  Evidence found in text (bold print) proves that answer B is the cause of the formation of the League.  five related Iroquois Nations formed what is known as “The Iroquois League.  The Iroquois called this union “The Great Peace.” They did not want wars among themselves. They wanted peace.  The Iroquois joined together for their common good.  Underlined words, phrases and inferences from the text matches words, phrases, and inferences in the question.  
    • Answer C - Although the Iroquois League chose leaders for their patience, good will, generosity, and ability to act in the best interests of all, this is not the reason the League was formed among the Iroquois Nations.  It is an effect of the formation of the League not a cause of the formation of the League. 
    • Answer D - Although the Iroquois Nations lived in the woods and hills of New York, there is no mention or insinuation that they wanted to take over the woods and hills of New York and is not the reason the League was formed among the Iroquois Nations.  
    (i) summarize the story or the information
      • As your child reads, help them to keep in mind what the central idea of the story is. For Lord of the Rings, for instance, the central idea might be something about how the power of greed (i.e. the Ring) is a strong force for evil, or even the actions of one insignificant person (like a hobbit) can change the world.  
      • Help your child look for the Who? (Who are the main characters?) What? (What is the main problem that the characters are having to overcome?) When and Where? (Where and when does the story take place? - "A long long time ago in a land far far away") Why? (Why is this such a great story? - because of that big event that wraps up the story's conflict and resolves the problems with a happy ending) These questions will help your child identify the basis for a good summary of the story. 
    • Make Inferences—Readers merge text clues with their prior knowledge and determine answers to questions that lead to conclusions about underlying themes or ideas. 
      • "Julia works at a pet store and owns four cats, a lizard, a dog and a rabbit." It can be inferred that Julia is a pet lover.
    • Synthesize—Readers combine new information with existing knowledge to form original ideas, new lines of thinking, or new creations.
      • An article on rain forest deforestation might point a finger at governmental forestry policies. A synthesis could involve forming an opinion about the shortsightedness of the government in question. This constitutes an evolution of thought: the new information combined with the reader's thinking leads them to a new insight.

    Vocabulary - building a student’s vocabulary and teaching students how to use context clues provided in the text to identify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words, thereby improving comprehension.  Types of Context Clues: ·

    • Definition Clues – The word’s meaning is explained in the sentence. 
      • His emaciation, that is, his skeleton-like appearance, was frightening to see.
        “Skeleton-like appearance” is the definition of “emaciation.”
    • Example Clues – An example of the word is given in the sentence or in the following sentence. 
      • Piscatorial creatures, such as flounder, salmon, and trout, live in the coldest parts of the
        ocean.
        “Piscatorial” obviously refers to fish.
    • Inference Clues – A word’s definition is not explained, therefore your child will need to look for clues in, before, or after the sentence.  
      • She told her friend, “What a dull evening! I was bored every minute. The conversation was vapid.”  “Vapid” means “uninteresting.”
    • Synonym Clues – Other words are used in the sentence that have a similar meaning.  
      • The mountain pass was a tortuous road, winding and twisting like a snake around the
        trees of the mountainside.
        “Tortuous” means “winding and twisting.”
    • Antonym Clues – The word is clarified by giving the opposite meaning.  
      • When the light brightens, the pupils of the eyes contract; however, when it grows darker,
        they dilate.
        “Dilate” means the opposite of “contract.”
        Words in Bold = Context Clues Signal Words 

    At home you can help your child by....En casa usted puede ayudar a su hijo .... ·         

    • Rereading a familiar book.  Children need practice in reading comfortably and with expression using books they know. Volver a leer un libro conocido. Los niños necesitan practicar la lectura con comodidad y con la expresión que utiliza los libros que ellos conocen. ·       
    • Building reading accuracy.  As your child is reading aloud, point out words he missed and help him read words correctly.  If you stop to focus on a word have your child reread the whole sentence to be sure he/she understands the meaning. ·La construcción de precisión de la lectura. A medida que su hijo está leyendo en voz alta, señalar las palabras que se perdió y ayudarle a leer las palabras correctamente. Si deja de leer para centrarse en una palabra, haga que su hijo vuelva a leer la frase entera para estar seguro de que él / ella entiende el significado. ·         
    • Building reading comprehension.  Talk with your child about what he/she is reading.  Ask about new words.  Talk about what happened in a story.  Ask about the characters, places, and events that took place.  Ask what new information he/she has learned from the book.  Encourage him/her to read on his/her own. · La construcción de la comprensión.  Hable con su hijo sobre lo que él / ella está leyendo. Pregunte acerca de las nuevas palabras que no conocen. Hable de lo que sucedió en una historia. Pregunte acerca de los personajes, lugares y acontecimientos que tuvieron lugar. Pregunte qué tipo de información nueva que él / ella ha aprendido de los libros. Anime a su hijo / a que lea independientemente.

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    Individualized Reading Instruction at Home After School and During School Breaks!

    Your child is currently receiving individualized reading instruction through the use of the computer-delivered program Istation Reading. Pickett has chosen to continue your child's reading experience by providing unlimited access to Istation Reading at home!  To gain access to the parent portal and Istation Home for your child, simply install Istation on your home computer or download the app. 
     
     
    The www.istation.com/IstationHome/ Web page will also provide information on how to log in to the Istation parent portal, where you can view your child’s progress and access reports and other resources. For more information or help, contact your child's teacher.  
     
     
     
Last Modified on August 28, 2016